About the classification of art (how art is classified)

About the classification of art (how art is classified) Photo 2
  1. Practical art

Refers to the combination of practical and aesthetic performance space art, mainly including architectural art, garden art, arts and crafts and modern design. Applied art is one of the oldest types of art in the history of human culture, which has emerged as early as the beginning of human history. The use of art is also the most popular and common category of all kinds of art, and is most closely related to People’s Daily life. Applied art is basically to create static works of art with practicality and aesthetics through solid material. The most basic characteristic of practical art is the combination of practicality and aesthetics.

  1. Plastic Arts

It refers to the art of using certain material materials (such as paint, paper, mud and stone) to reflect social life and express the artist’s thoughts and emotions by creating static visual images. It is a kind of representational space art and also a static visual art. Mainly include painting, sculpture, photography and so on. It is one of the oldest art categories in the history of human culture. With the development of modern science and technology, photography has emerged as a new documentary plastic art, which makes plastic art more popular and extensive.

  1. Expression art

It refers to the general term of this kind of art that directly expresses people’s emotions and indirectly reflects social life through certain material media (sound, human body). It mainly refers to the two expressive arts and performance arts of music and dance. The most basic aesthetic characteristics of expression art are lyricism and expressiveness. It is the oldest art category in human history, primitive hunting and witchcraft activities have appeared music and dance. It is also the most popular and extensive art category in contemporary people’s life. Music and dance are the art forms that ordinary people participate in most except artists.

  1. Comprehensive art

It is a general term for drama, drama, film and television and other arts. Comprehensive art has absorbed the strengths of literature, painting, music, dance and other arts, and obtained a variety of means and ways of artistic expression, thus forming its own unique aesthetic characteristics. It combines the characteristics of time art, space art, visual art and auditory art, representation art and performance art, plastic art and performance art, and has a stronger artistic appeal. The most basic aesthetic characteristic of comprehensive art is comprehensiveness.

  1. Language arts

It refers to the literature that people often say, including poetry, prose, novels, plays and other themes. Since literature always uses language as a means to shape artistic images, reflect social life and express the author’s thoughts and feelings, language has always played an important role as an artistic medium and basic material, so people generally call literature language art.

  1. Gothic architecture

It is an architectural style that flourished at the height and end of the Middle Ages, originating in France in the 12th century and lasting until the 16th century. The overall style of Gothic architecture is tall, thin and pointed. With excellent architectural skills, it expresses the strong emotions of mystery, pathos and sublimity, which has a great influence on other art in later generations. The most typical buildings are Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, Milan Cathedral in Italy, and Cologne Cathedral in Germany. Gothic architecture occupies an important position in the history of architecture with its high technical and artistic achievements. The most obvious architectural style of Gothic architecture is the soaring spires and the large colorful glass paintings on the Windows.

  1. Art of architecture

Architectural art refers to the use of the unique artistic language of architectural art in accordance with the law of beauty, so that the architectural image has cultural value and aesthetic value, has symbolic and formal beauty, and reflects the national character and the sense of The Times. According to its functional characteristics, architectural art can be divided into commemorative architecture, palace mausoleum architecture, religious architecture, residential architecture, garden architecture, production architecture and other types. In general, architectural art, like arts and crafts, is also an art that combines practicality and aesthetics. The essence of architecture is a living place built by human beings for living and activities, so practicality is the primary function of architecture. However, with the development of human practice and the progress of material technology, architecture has more and more aesthetic value.

  1. Neoclassical architecture

From the 1860s to the 19th century, a classical revival architectural style was popular in some countries in Europe and the United States. At that time, people were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, and archaeology unearthed a large number of ancient Greek and Roman architectural art treasures, creating conditions for this kind of thinking. This architectural style is mainly used in public buildings such as courts, banks, exchanges, museums, theaters and some commemorative buildings, and has little impact on general homes, churches, and schools. Neoclassical architecture can be broadly divided into two types. One is abstract classicism; One is representational or eclectic classicism. The former is represented by the works of Philip Johnson, Graves and Yamassaki; The latter is represented by the work of Moore and Ricardo Bofill.

  1. Organic architecture

Organic architecture is a faction of the modern architecture movement, represented by the American architect F. L. Wright. He advocated the theory of “organic architecture”, which holds that buildings should be subordinate to the surrounding natural environment, just as a plant grows naturally from its surrounding environment. Its representative as the Fallingwater villa, its novel and unique shape, with the surrounding environment integrated. And Sydney Opera House, unique shape, rich in innovation, become a symbol of Australia.

  1. The Golden Ratio

A division rule in plastic arts, referred to as the gold rate. Its numerical ratio is about 1.618:1 or 1:0.618 and is called the golden ratio. First discovered by the ancient Greeks, it was considered by Europeans to be the most beautiful and harmonious proportion until the 19th century. Gold ratio is widely used in plastic arts, with strict proportion, artistry, harmony, contains rich aesthetic value. Especially in the arts and crafts and craft design of the long and wide proportion of the design is easy to cause beauty, such as the height and width of the ancient Greek Parthenon temple, column spacing are in line with this principle.

  1. Renaissance Architecture

A style of architecture popular in Europe from the 15th to the 19th centuries, originating in Florence, Italy, and gradually emerging with the Renaissance movement. This architectural style takes the Renaissance trend as its theoretical basis, criticizes the theocracy of the Middle Ages, advocates humanism, rejects the Gothic architectural style symbolizing theocracy in the shape, and advocates the revival of the ancient Roman architectural form. Therefore, Renaissance architecture emphasizes order and proportion, and has a strict plan and elevation composition and a tradition of columns inherited from classical architecture. Represented by Italy, throughout Europe. The Medici Mansion in Florence, Italy, the Fontainebleau Palace in France.

  1. Modernist architectural trend

An architectural thought that dominated western architecture in the middle of the 20th century. Modernist architecture advocates that architects should get rid of the shackles of traditional architectural forms and boldly create new buildings that adapt to the conditions and requirements of the industrialized society at that time. Therefore, it has a clear color of rationalism and radicalism, and is also called modern architecture. The trend of modernist architecture originated in the late 19th century, matured in the 1920s, and became popular all over the world in the 20c5060s. The 20th century was the heyday of modernist architecture, during which architects created a large number of architectural works of art.

  1. Bauhaus

The Bauhaus school is short for a typical representative of modernist architecture. Starting from the practical function of the building, the designer establishes the specific structure and location relationship according to the practical requirements of each area of the building, adopts new materials such as reinforced concrete and glass and highlights the beauty of the material itself. The use of contrast techniques in the building structure also makes the final appearance of the building different from any previous architectural style. The geometric composition of large white walls, simple flat roof and large glass structure, much like Mondrian’s abstract paintings. The combination of practicality and aesthetics of architectural art is fully reflected in this art film, which is regarded as a landmark example of modern architecture. Its establishment marked the birth of modern design education and had a profound impact on the development of modern design in the world, and Bauhaus was also the first college in the world established entirely for the development of modern design education.

  1. Bauhaus School

The Bauhaus School was a German architectural school formed and developed in the 1920s based on the Bauhaus. Gropius was the core figure of the Bauhaus. Together with other members of the Bauhaus, he created a new set of architectural views, creative methods and teaching views focusing on function, technology and economy. They value space design; Emphasis on functional and structural effectiveness; The aesthetic of architecture is related to the purpose of architecture, material properties and construction methods; Advocate the new technology to solve the new function problem economically. Bauhaus teaching is characterized by opposing imitation and combining product design with function.

  1. Art of Music

Music art is an art form that uses orderly sound elements to form auditory images, and then expresses human thoughts and feelings and social real life. Sound is the means of expression of music art, and artists complete music creation by organizing sound elements in an orderly manner. Both human and musical works are sounds created through human creative artistic activities. Among all art categories, music is the best art form for expressing and expressing emotions. It uses sound as a medium to truly convey, express and feel aesthetic emotions.

  1. Classical music

From the second half of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century, the music school formed in Vienna with classical style as its creation symbol, mainly represented by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. This school advocates the unity of reason and emotion, pursues the rigor and perfection of art forms, pays attention to the contrast, conflict and development of drama in creative techniques, and most of the music is serious, stable and rational. The expression of feelings is implicit, which became a model at that time.

  1. Romantic music

The music genre that arose in Europe in the 19th century is characterized by its emphasis on passion, on the expression of subjective emotions, and on the expression of personality. The representatives of early romantic music are mainly German composers Schubert and Schumann, Hungary Liszt, Poland Chopin, France Berlioz and others, and later romantic music German musicians Wagner Brahms, Russia Tchaikovsky.

New Viennese School:

  1. Symphony

A large orchestral piece consisting of several movements, usually written for orchestra. A symphony is a large orchestral suite that evolved from an Italian opera overture. It is a large orchestral genre established during the classical period in the second half of the 18th century, usually in a cycle of four movements. Generally speaking, it is divided into five instrumental groups: string group, woodwind group, brass group, percussion group and color instrument group. Beethoven’s Symphony of Destiny Berlioz’s Symphony of Fantasy Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 (Ode to Joy) Mozart’s Symphony No. 40

  1. Art of dance

With the human body as an artistic expression tool, with refined, organized and artistically processed human movements as the main means of expression, through rhythmic, organized and beautified mobility movements to express people’s thoughts and feelings, reflect social life. The art of dance originated from the early labor of mankind and is one of the earliest art forms in the history of human civilization. In general, it can be divided into two categories: life dance and art dance.

  1. Ballet

A European classical dance, born in the Italian Renaissance, developed and professionalized in France in the second half of the 17th century, and swept the world in constant innovation. One of the most important features of ballet is that the actress points her toes when performing, so it is also called toe dancing. His representative works include “Swan Lake”, “Fairy” and “Nutcracker”. Ballet is the use of music and dance to perform dramatic plots.

  1. The art of painting

The most important art form in plastic arts is an art category that uses lines, colors and shapes and other painting modeling languages to create static visual images in two-dimensional space and express aesthetic emotions through artistic means such as composition, modeling and color application.

  1. Focus perspective

The basic principle of the perspective method of Western painting is to draw the image seen through a glass plate with a pen on this glass plate to obtain a painting that conforms to the principle of focal perspective. Its characteristics are in line with human visual reality, pay attention to scientific. Under the guidance of the combination of art and science, I have mastered the law of expression space by using focus perspective.

Close to the human eye to observe the objective world, the sense of reality is strong, help artists more objectively reflect the objective world in the eyes of the subject. After the Renaissance, focal perspective was adopted by Western painters.

  1. Scatter perspective

Also known as moving point perspective. It refers to the writing method of expressing the characteristics of things from multiple angles, or depicting the characters from multiple sides. The composition of painting creation according to the scatter perspective method can construct all the scenes of characters in different time and space into the picture. This makes the subjective factors in painting more fully reflected, painting means more abundant. The “three-distance method” proposed by Guo Xi, a painter in Song Dynasty, is the best explanation of scatter perspective.

Landscape painting

Traditional Chinese painting with natural scenery as the main object of description. China’s landscape painting has a long history, showing rich natural scenery, but also reflects the aesthetic taste of Chinese people. Landscape painting began to develop from Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, Sui, Tang and five dynasties, and reached its peak in Song and Yuan Dynasties. Generally, landscape painting is divided into green landscape, ink landscape, small green landscape, light crimson landscape, and boneless landscape. The special tradition of Chinese landscape painting is to create the artistic conception of the combination of form and spirit. Representative works are: Yuan Dynasty “Fuchun Mountain Residence” Northern Song “Snow scenery cold forest”.

Flower and bird painting

Refers to the use of Chinese ink and rice paper, flowers, birds and other animals as the object of painting. It embodies the aesthetic relationship between the Chinese people and the natural creatures as aesthetic objects, and has strong lyricism. In flower-and-bird painting, there are three kinds of painting methods: “meticulous brushwork”, “freehand brushwork” and “concurrent work belt writing”. In the long historical development, Chinese flower-and-bird painting has adapted to the social aesthetic needs of the Chinese people, forming a tradition based on sketching and relying on Yuxing and freehand painting. Song Dynasty Cui Bai’s “Cold Finch Map”, Zheng Banqiao’s “Bamboo Cluster Map”, “Lotus Waterfowl Map”.

  1. Oil Painting

A type of painting made on linen, cardboard, or wood by mixing paint with quick-drying vegetable oil. Oil painting originated and developed in Europe, is one of the main types of Western painting. The diluents used in oil painting are volatile turpentine and dry linseed oil. The pigment attached to the picture has a strong hardness, and when the picture is thoroughly dried, it can maintain a long-term luster. The hiding power and transparent performance of the paint fully depict the object, rich color, strong three-dimensional texture.

  1. Print

An important category of visual arts is the use of tools such as knives and pens to depict and copy a painting on a page of different materials. The broad definition of printmaking can include graphics produced before the industrialization of printing. The contemporary concept of printmaking mainly refers to the artistic works created by artists and produced through plate making and printing procedures. Specifically, it is a picture printed after engraving or etching on wood, hemp glue, copper and other pages with knives or chemicals. The art of printmaking has been accompanied by the invention and development of printing technology. Ancient printmaking mainly refers to wood engraving, but also a few copper engraving and color leakage. The unique taste of knife and wood make prints have independent artistic value and status in the world culture and art history. Durer, The Four Horsemen, Zhao Ruichun, The Dresser

  1. Watercolor painting

A type of painting in which water is mixed with clear paint

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